Richard A. Lovett for National Geographic News
Japan's seabed moved by as much as 79 feet (24 meters) during the giant March 11 earthquake—the largest earthquake slip ever recorded, scientists say.
But that doesn't mean that it's the largest such shift ever to have been caused by an earthquake, cautioned Chris Goldfinger, director of the Active Tectonics and Seafloor Mapping Laboratory at Oregon State University.
The March earthquake was, however, the first time that scientists have directly measured such a slippage thousands of feet of underwater.
"Any magnitude 9 earthquake will have similar values," said Goldfinger, who was not part of the study team.
For instance, the 2004 Sumatra earthquake may have moved the seabed by as much as 100 feet (30 meters), he said by email.
GPS Technology Tracks Fault Movements
For several years, a team led by Mariko Sato of the Japan Coast Guard has been monitoring particular spots along the Japanese fault that produced the recent earthquake.
This two-step technique is necessary, because GPS signals cannot reach the seabed, Sato said by email.
Shortly after the Japan earthquake occurred on March 11, the scientists returned to measure the changes.
"This is the first time a great subduction earthquake has been directly observed in the submarine part of the fault, which is where most of the action takes place," noted Oregon State's Goldfinger.
"We normally have to infer slips from onshore GPS," Goldfinger said. "Being able to measure it directly is very useful. It confirms the ability to model it from shore. It will help quite a lot in refining such models."
Overall, the more we learn about such earthquakes the better, Goldfinger added. Pre-2011 tectonic models, for example, did not predict a big earthquake around the site of the March epicenter near the east coast of Honshu island, Japan.
"It is important to continue monitoring seafloor movements in order to evaluate the risks of future earthquakes and tsunami."